Rugby league football,[3] usually called rugby league,[4] is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field.[5] One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players.[6] Its rules gradually changed with the purpose of producing a faster,[7][8] more entertaining game for spectators.[9] It is frequently cited as the toughest, most physically demanding of team sports.[10]

In rugby league points are scored by carrying or kicking the ball down the field, until it can be moved past the opponents' designated goal line and touched to the ground; this is called atry, and is the primary method of scoring.[5] The opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side gaining points by preventing their progress up the field by tackling the player carrying the ball.[5] In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points.[5] Kicks at goal may also be awarded for penalties, and field goals can be attempted at any time during general play.

Rugby league is among the most popular sports in England,[11] Australia,[12] New Zealand,[13] France,[14] Tonga[15] and Papua New Guinea[16] where it is the national sport.[17][18] The European Super League and Australasian NRL are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European, Australasian and Pacificcountries, and is governed by the Rugby League International Federation. The current World Cup holders are New Zealand.


 [hide*1 Etymology


Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby football, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain, Australia and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908.

The first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union (RFU). Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules almost immediately, thus creating a new faster paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.[19] In 1922, the Northern Union also changed its name to the Rugby Football League[20] and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football.


Main article: History of rugby league

In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU).[21] Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams typically had more working class players (coal miners, mill workers etc.) who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle.[6] In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs (including Stockport who negotiated by telephone) meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union".[22] Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.

In 1897, the line-out was abolished[23] and in 1898 professionalism introduced.[24] In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball.[25]

A similar schism to that which occurred England took place in SydneyAustralia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street.[26] Rugby league then went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland.[27]

On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 (official figure 102,569) spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup final at Odsal StadiumBradford, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code.[26] Also in 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed. This was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.[28] 1967 saw the first professional Sunday matches of rugby league played.

The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer. The media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted: long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an extremely competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed. The NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.[29]


Main articles: Rugby league gameplay and Laws of rugby league

The objective in rugby league is to score more points through triesgoals (also known as conversions) and field goals (also known as drop goals) than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declared, or the game may enter extra time under the golden point rule, depending on the relevant competition's format.

The try is the most common form of scoring,[30] and a team will usually attempt to score one by running and kicking the ball further upfield, or passing from player-to-player in order to manoeuvre around the opposition's defence. A try involves touching the ball to the ground on or beyond the defending team's goal-line and is worth four points. A goal is worth two points and may be gained from a conversion or a penalty. A field goal, or drop goal, is only worth one point and is gained by dropping and then kicking the ball on the half volley between the uprights in open play.

Field position is crucial in rugby league,[31] achieved by running with or kicking the ball. Passing in rugby league may only be in a backward or sideways direction. Teammates therefore have to remain on-side by not moving ahead of the player with the ball. However the ball may be kicked ahead for teammates, but again, if they are in front of the kicker they are deemed off-side. Tackling is a key component of rugby league play. Only the player holding the football may be tackled. A tackle is completed when that player's progress is halted, or he is put to ground. An attacking team gets a maximum of six tackles to progress up the field before possession is changed over. Ball control is also important in rugby league, as a fumble of the ball on the ground forces a handover, unless the ball is fumbled backwards.The ball can also be turned over by going over the sideline.


[1][2]Leeds Rhinos playing at the 2008 boxing day friendly against Wakefield Trinity Wildcats at Headingley StadiumMain article: Rugby league positions

Players on the field are divided into forwards and backs, although the game's rules apply to all players the same way. Each position has a designated number to identify himself from other players. These numbers help to identify which position a person is playing. The system of numbering players is different depending on which country the match is played in. In Australia and New Zealand, each player is usually given a number corresponding to their playing position on the field. However, since 1996 European teams have been able to grant players specific squad numbers, which they keep in irrelevance to the position they play, similarly to association football.[32]

Interchanges (generally referred to as "The Bench") are allowed in the sport, and are typically used when a player gets tired or injured, although they can also be used tactically. Each team is currently allowed four substitutes, and in Australia and New Zealand, these players occupy shirt numbers 14 to 22.[33] There are no limitations on what players must occupy these interchangeable slots, and interchanged players may re-enter the field of play again following a second interchange. Generally, twelve interchanges are allowed in any game from each team, although in the National Rugby League, this was reduced to ten prior to the 2008 season.[34] If a team has to interchange a player due to the Blood Binrule or due to injury, and this was the result of misconduct from the opposing team, the compromised team does not have to use one of its allocated interchanges to take the player in question off the field.


The backs are generally smaller, faster and more agile than the forwards. They are often the most creative and evasive players on the field, relying on running, kicking and handling skills, as well as tactics and set plays, to break the defensive line, instead of brute force. Generally forwards do the majority of the work (hit-ups/tackling).

  • The title of fullback (numbered 1) comes from the fullback's defensive position where the player drops out of the defensive line to cover the rear from kicks and runners breaking the line. They therefore usually are good ball catchers and clinical tacklers. In attack the fullback will typically make runs into the attack or support a runner in anticipation of a pass out of the tackle. Fullbacks can play a role in attack similar to a halfback or five-eighth and the fact that the fullback does not have to defend in the first defensive line means that a coach can keep a playmaker from the tackling responsibilities of the first line whilst allowing them to retain their attacking role.
  • The wingers or "wing three-quarters" (numbered 2 and 5) are normally the fastest players in a team and play on the far left and right fringes of the field (the wings). Their main task is to receive passes and score tries. The wingers also drop back on the last tackle to cover the left and right sides of the field for kicks while the fullback covers the middle.
  • The centres or "centre three-quarters" (numbered 3 and 4) are positioned one in from the wings and together complete what is known as the three-quarter line. Usually the best mixture of power and vision, their main role is to try to create attacking opportunities for their team and defend against those of the opposition. Along with the wingers, the centres score plenty of tries throughout a season. They usually have a large build and therefore can often play in thesecond row forwards.

Usually, the stand-off half and scrum-half are a team's creative unit or 'playmakers'. During the interactions between a team's 'key' players (stand-off half, scrum-half, fullback, loose-forward, and nine), the stand-off half and scrum-half will usually be involved in most passing moves.

  • The stand-off half or 'pivot' or 'five-eighth' (numbered 6): There is not much difference between the stand-off half and the scrum-half, in that both players may operate in front of the pack during 'forward play' (as prime receiver [7] and shadow receiver [6], one on each side of the ruck, or both on same side of the ruck), and both players may operate in front of the backs during 'back play' (as prime pivot [6] and shadow pivot [7], one on each side of the ruck / pack, or both on same side of the ruck / pack). The stand-off half position is named with regard to the role / location of the player in respect to the scrum.
  • The scrum half or 'halfback' (numbered 7): There is not much difference between the scrum-half and the stand-off half, in that both players may operate in front of the pack during 'forward play' (as prime receiver [7] and shadow receiver [6], one on each side of the ruck, or both on same side of the ruck). Both players may operate in front of the backs during 'back play' (as prime pivot [6] and shadow pivot [7], one on each side of the ruck / pack, or both on same side of the ruck / pack). The scrum half position is named with regard to the role / location of the player in respect to the scrum.


[3][4]Rugby league is noted for its hard physical play

The forwards' two responsibilities can be broken into "normal play" and "scrum play". For information on a forward's role in the scrum see rugby league scrummage. Forward positions are traditionally named after the player's position in the scrum yet are equal with respect to "normal play" with the exception of the hooker. Forward positions are traditionally assigned as follows:

  • The props or front-row forwards (numbered 8 and 10) are normally the largest players on field (male props typically weigh over 100 kg in the open age/senior game). They are positioned in the centre of the line. The prop will be an "enforcer", dissuading the opposition from attacking the centre of the defensive line and, in attack, will give the team momentum by taking the ball up to the defence aggressively.
  • The hooker (numbered 9) is most likely to play the role of dummy-half. In defence the hooker usually defends in the middle of the line against the opposition's props and second-rowers. The hooker will be responsible for organising the defence in the middle of the field. In attack as dummy-half this player is responsible for starting the play from every play-the-ball by either passing the ball to the right player, or, at opportune moments, running from dummy-half. It is vital that the hooker can pass very well. Traditionally, hookers "hooked" the ball in the scrum. Hookers also make probably more tackles than any other player on the field. The hooker is always involved in the play and needs to be very fit. They need to have a very good knowledge of the game and the players around them.
  • The second row forwards (numbered 11 and 12) The modern day second row is very similar to a centre and is expected to be faster, more mobile and have more skills than the prop and will play amongst the three-quarters, providing strength in attack and defence when the ball is passed out to the wings. Good second-rowers combine the skills and responsibilities of props and centres in the course of the game.
  • The loose forward or lock (numbered 13) is the only forward in the third (last) row of the scrum. They are usually among the fittest players on the field, covering the entire field on both attacking and defending duties. Typically they are big ball-runners who can occasionally slot in as a passing link or kick option; it is not uncommon for loose forwards/locks to have the skills of a Stand-off/five-eighth and to play a similar role in the team.

Rugby league worldwide[edit]Edit

Rugby league is played in over 30 nations throughout the world, 27 are ranked by the RLIF and a further 11 are unranked.[35] The strongest rugby league nations are AustraliaEngland and New Zealand. The Rugby League World Cup is the highest form of representative rugby league and currently features 14 teams (ordered by RLIF rank) (1) Australia, (2) New Zealand, (3) England, (4) France, (5) Wales, (6) Papua New Guinea, (7) Fiji, (8) Samoa, (9) Tonga, (10)Scotland, (11) USA, (12) Ireland, (13) Italy and (16) Cook Islands. (14) Lebanon, (17) Russia and (22) South Africa have previously contested in World Cups. The current World Champions are New Zealand, who won the 2008 Rugby League World Cup. Prior to this, Australia had won every World Cup since 1975.[36]

[5][6]The 2006 NRL Grand Final betweenBrisbane Broncos and Melbourne Storm atOlympic Stadium, Sydney

The game is particularly popular in the nations of the South Pacific. Rugby League is the 3rd most attended sport in Australia [37]} and neighbouring Papua New Guinea is the only country to have rugby league as its national sport.[17][18] This has led to officials from that country lobbying to have a team admitted to the National Rugby League,[38] Australia's elite club competition which also features a team from Auckland, New Zealand's biggest city. The popularity of the code in New Zealand has led to the possibility of another team from the South Island entering the competition as well.[39] Rugby league is the dominant winter sport in the eastern Australian states of New South Wales, Queensland and Australian Capital Territory,[40] The game is also among the predominant sports of Tonga[15] and is played in other Pacific nations such as Samoa and the Cook Islands. In Australia, and indeed the rest of the region, the annual State of Origin series ranks among the most popular sporting events.[41][42]

The Rugby League European Federation are responsible for developing rugby league in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere,[43] while the Asia Pacific Rugby League Confederation are responsible for developing rugby league in the Asia-Pacific region.[44] The Rugby League European Cup and Rugby League Pacific Cup are both run by the RLEF and APRLC respectively and are used as a stepping stone to the Rugby League Four Nations with Australia, New Zealand and England, the fourth team being decided by who wins the Pacific and European Cup, and rotates each year from Europe to the Pacific.

[7][8]A game between Leeds Rhinos and Hull F.C. academy sides in England, May 2009

In England, rugby league has traditionally been associated with the northern counties of YorkshireLancashire and Cumbria where the game originated, although its popularity has also increased elsewhere.[45][46][47] Currently, two of the fourteen Super League teams are based outside of these traditional counties: London Broncos and Catalans Dragons. Figures published by the Rugby Football League showed an 81% increase in women playing the sport in the twelve months prior to October 2008, as well as an increase in juniors of both genders nationwide.[48] Over 40,000 players were registered by the RFL as of October 2008 with an overall participation rate in the game doubling in the last four years to well over 285,000 by late 2009.[48]

France first played rugby league as late as 1934, where in the five years prior to World War II, the sport's popularity increased as Frenchmen became disenchanted with the state of French rugby union in the 1930s.[49] However, after the Allied Forces were defeated by Germany in June 1940, the Vichy regime in the south seized assets belonging to rugby league authorities and clubs and banned the sport for its association with the left-wing Popular Front government that had governed France before the War.[49] The sport was unbanned after the Liberation of Paris in August 1944 and the collapse of the Vichy regime, although it was still actively marginalised by the French authorities until the 1990s.[49] Despite this, the national side appeared in the finals of the 1954 and 1968 World Cups, and the country hosted the 1954 event.[50][51] In 1996, a French team, Paris Saint-Germain was one of eleven teams which formed the new European Super League, although the club was dissolved in 1997 due to its failure to run at a profit and poor attendances.[52] In 2006, the Super League admitted the Catalans Dragons, a team from Perpignanin the southern Languedoc-Roussillon region.[53] They have subsequently reached the 2007 Challenge Cup Final and made the play-offs of the 2008 Super League XIII season. The success of the 'Dragons' in Super League has initiated a renaissance in French rugby league, with new-found enthusiasm for the sport in the south of the country where most of the Elite One Championship teams are based.

The early 21st century has seen other countries take up the game and compete in international rugby league with efforts being made by the Rugby League European Federation to expand the game to new areas such as Germany,SwedenNorway and Hungary.[54][55][56]

Domestic competitions[edit]Edit

The two most prominent fully professional leagues are the Australasian National Rugby League and the European Super League and to a lesser extent the French Elite One Championship. Domestic leagues exist below the NRL and Super League, especially on a state or county level, in Australia the semi professional Queensland Cup and NSW Cup, which provides players to various NRL teams, and the Co-operative Championship, which is a semi-professional competition for clubs in the United Kingdom. The Championship 1 is the third tier of British rugby league which has intentions to expand the game beyond its northern heartlands, NorthamptonBristolCoventry, and Hemel Hempsteadhave been named as potential teams for the 2013 season.[57] Dutch rugby league club Rotterdam Spartans will operate as a semi-professional team that will aim to compete as a fully professional club in the European Super League by 2021.[58]

Rugby league is currently played in the United States through the semi-professional American National Rugby League (AMNRL) which involves 12 teams, 6 from the Atlantic and 6 from the Pacific Conference as well as developing teams from UtahChicago and Atlanta.[59] The USA Rugby League (USARL) was formed as a split from the AMNRL in 2011 and involves 9 teams situated across the East Coast from Boston to Jacksonville[60] the USARL's 7 developing teams features 1 from the East Coast in Pittsburgh and 6 from the West Coast - SeattleDenverLos AngelesOrange CountyDallas and Houston.[61] Jamaica also have plans to include a professional team, the Hurricanes Rugby League in one of the American leagues by 2013.[62]

The game is played semi-professionally in Papua New Guinea, where it is the official national sport. The Bemobile Cup has provided many players to the Papuan national team, such as Menzie Yere and Charlie Wabo, who have gone on to play professionally in England. The government is also lobbying for an NRL expansion franchise.[63]

Both Australia and Europe have their own domestic cup tournaments. The Rugby Football League's Challenge Cup is contested by amateur and professional teams. In Australia, the State of Origin series is a domestic tournament, played between New South Wales and Queensland teams. New South Wales also has a one-match City vs Country Origin annually. In New Zealand clubs teams challenge for the Rugby League Cup.

Asia is about to enter the Rugby League family with the announcement of Thai Rugby League launching a domestic 6 team league in May 2014.[64]

Current competitions[edit]Edit


Nations Competition Teams Established Latest Year Winner Runner-Up Tier/Division
AUSNZL National Rugby League (NRL) 16 1908 2013 [9]

Sydney Roosters


Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles

[11] A-Grade

VB New South Wales Cup

13 2008 2013 [13]

Cronulla Sharks

Windsor Wolves [14] 1st Tier

Queensland Super Intrust Cup

12 2008 2012 [16]

Wynnum Manly Seagulls


Redcliffe Dolphins

NRL Holden Cup U20's (NYC) 16 2007 2013 [18]

Penrith Panthers


New Zealand Warriors

[20] Youth
CAN [21]

British Columbia Rugby League (BCRLC)

6 2012 2013 [22]

Surrey Beavers


Kelowna Crows

[24] 1st Tier

Ontario Rugby League (ORL)

4 2010 2013 [26]

Toronto City Saints


Toronto Centruions

COK Cook Island League 4 2010 2010 [28]

Avatiu Eels

Unknown [29] 1st Tier
CZE Czech Republic Rugby League First Division 4 2012 2012 [30]

Lokomotiva Beroun

Unknown [31] 1st Division
Czech Republic Rugby League Second Division 4 2012 2012 [32]

Mikulov Roosters

Unknown [33] 2nd Division
ENGFRA European Super League (ESL) 14 1907 2013 [34]

Wigan Warriors


Warrington Wolves

[36] A-Grade
ENGWAL Kingstone Press Championship 10 2003 2012 [37]

Sheffield Eagles


Featherstone Rovers

[39] 1st Tier
Kingstone Press Championship 1 10 2003 2012 [40]

Doncaster RLFC


Barrow Raiders

[42] 2nd Tier
FIJ Fiji National Rugby League (FNRL) 14 2010 2012 [43]

Makoi Bulldogs


Sabeto Roosters

[45] 1st Tier
FRA Le Championnat de France Elite Un 10 2002 2010-11 [46]

Lézignan Sangliers


Limoux Grizzlies

[48] 1st Tier
GER Rugby League Deutschland 8 2010 2010 [49]

Rheinland RLFC

Unknown [50] 1st Tier
IRE Leicester Rugby League Competition 4 2010 2010 [51]

Dublin City Exiles

Unknown [52] 1st Tier
Munster Rugby League Competition 6 2010 2010 [53]

Treaty City Titans

ITA Italian iRFleague 4 2010 2010 [54]

Gladiators Roma


I Magnifici Firenze

[56] 1st Tier
JAM Jamacia Championship 8 2010 2010 [57]

Vauxhall Vultures

Unknown [58] 1st Tier
LIB Lebanon Championship 6 2010 2011 [59]

LAU Immortals

Unknown [60] 1st Tier
NED Netherlands Grand Prix 4 2008 2012 [61]

Nootdorp Panthers


Capelle Spartans

[63] 1st Tier
NZL National Zonal Competition 7 1908 2012 [64]

Akarana Falcons


Counties Manukau Stingrays

[66] 1st Tier
NOR Norway Championship 6 2011 2012 [67]

Olso Capitals

Unknown [68] 1st Tier
PNG PNG Digicel Cup 10 1989 2012 [69]

Goroka Lahanis


Port Moresby Vipers

[71] 1st Tier
SAM Samoan Championship 6 2010 2010 [72]

Marist Saints

Unknown [73] 1st Tier
SCO Scotland Conference First Division 10 2004 2012 [74]

Edinburgh Eagles


Aberdeen Warriors

[76] 1st Tier
SER Serbian Rugby League Championship 10 2002 2012 [77]



Red Star Belgrade

[79] 1st Tier
RSA South Africa Protea Cup 8 2010 2011 [80]




[82] 1st Tier
South Africa Rhino Cup 5 2010 2012 [83]




TON TNRL Global Insurance Cup 19 2006 2012 [85]

Lapaha Knights


Mu'a Saints

[87] 1st Tier
USA American National Rugby League (AMNRL) 8 1998 2012 [88]

New York Knights


Connecticut Wildcats

[90] 1st Tier
USA Rugby League (USARL) 15 2011 2012 [91]

Jacksonville Axemen


Boston Thirteens

WAL Welsh Conference 6 2010 2011 [93]

Huddersfield Rangers

Unknown [94] 1st Tier


Tournament Year Current Holder
Rugby League World Cup 2008 New Zealand
Four Nations 2011 Australia
European Cup 2010 Wales
Pacific Cup 2009 Papua New Guinea
Atlantic Cup 2011 Great Britain
Tri-Nations 2006 Australia
Nordic Cup 2011 Denmark
ANZAC Cup 2012 Australia
Colonial Cup 2011 United States
Baskerville Shield 2007 Great Britain
European Shield – Western 2010 Serbia
European Shield – Eastern 2010 Russia
The Ashes 2003 Australia
Federation Shield 2006 England
European Bowl 2012 Czech Republic
Milan Kosanovic Cup 2011 Russia
Euro Med Challenge 2009 Morocco
Slavic Cup 2010 Serbia
Mediterranean Cup 2004 Lebanon


Tournament Year Current Holder
All Stars Match 2013 Indigenous All Stars
State of Origin 2013 [95]


City vs Country Origin 2012 [96]


International Origin 2012 [97]


War of the Roses 2003 [98]


PNG Origin 2010 PNG Internationals
Ireland Provincial 2011 [99] Munster
Fiji Origin 2010 [100] Western Conference
Lebanon Origin 2010 Liban Espoir
Bundesland of Origin 2009 [101]


Serbian Origin 2010 Belgrade City
Czech Republic Origin 2010 [102]


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