Ernst Lubitsch (Berlin28 January 1892 – Hollywoodnovember 30, 1947) was a German film director, who had his greatest successes in Hollywood. His films are characterized by a refined humor with a sexual undertone and an elegant style, which were associated with him so much that there is a term for is figured out, the "Lubitsch-key".


[hide]*1 Biography


Ernst Lubitsch was born into a family of Jewish tailors. On the high school he came for the first time in contact with the scene. Originally he would work with his parents in the family business, but Lubitsch would rather play in the theatre. He quit school at the age of 16 and became accountant during the day at the family business, in order to play in the evening and at night in cabarets and vaudeville theatres. In 1911 , he was as actor member of the Max Reinhardt's Deutsches Theater , where he's supporting cast to great leading roles.

A year later, he took a side job as a handyman at the Berlin Bioscope film studio. That same year he made his movie debut, first as an actor in comedies and from 1914especially as a Director. In 1918 he broke through as a Director with the tragedy That Augen der Mumie Ma, with Pola Negri in the lead role. Carmen, likewise with Negri, became an international hit. His work was characterized by comedies, but he went also make more historical dramas . In 1919 were among other things That Austernprinzessin and Madame Dubarry released, with which Lubitsch got international fame. In That Austernprinzessin were for the first time its distinctive visual style and subtle humor, which became known as the "Lubitsch-key". In 1920 , he directed the film Anna Boleyn .

In december 1921 , he travelled to the United States to advertise his new film Das Weib des Pharao. The following year, he moved permanently to Hollywood, at the request of Mary Pickfordfilm with her Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall to record. He pointed, however, on the other hand, in this movie, but directed her Rosita. The film was enthusiastically received by critics, although Pickford itself was not satisfied with the result. He decided to stay and to continue his career in the United States.

The Marriage Circle from 1924 was the first of a series of successful sophisticated romantic comedies why he would be known. This series includes Forbidden Paradise(1924), Kiss Me AgainLady Windermere's Fan (1925), So This Is Paris (1926) and The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg (1927). With the advent of the sound film in 1927 left Lubitsch by Warner Bros. toParamount, where he directed several music films for. In this period he would know his greatest successes. His first music film The Love Parade was from 1929, in which he gave his discovery starring Jeanette MacDonald in addition to Maurice Chevalier. The interplay between the two actors turned out to be a golden turn, and MacDonald and Chevalier would in five more films to see together are. In addition to The Love Parade were also musicals Monte Carlo (1930) and The Smiling Lieutenant (1931) very well received by the critics. In 1932 he made a zijstapje to a critical anti-war drama with Broken Lullaby .

In the 1930s, began a successful collaboration with Lubitsch screenwriter Samson Raphaelson, including Trouble in Paradise from 1932. In 1935, he was appointed as manager thinks of Paramount, so that he could produce his own films, as well as monitor the production of other filmmakers. In 1938 he became a member of the French Legion of honor. In 1939 , he moved to MGM. For this studio, he made the highly successfulsatirical comedy Ninotchka, written by Billy Wilder with Greta Garbo in the title role. After this film, he directed The Shop Around The Corner from 1940, with James Stewart and Margaret Sullavan as two feuding colleagues who do not know that they actually are each other's pen pals. After That Uncertain Feeling (1941), he made in 1942 one of his best known films, the black comedy To Be or Not To Be, a satire about aPolish acting group that is trying to escape the NazisCarole Lombard had one of the lead roles.

In 1943 he moved to 20th Century Fox, for which he took up film Heaven Can Wait . Recordings of other movies were prevented by his deteriorated health, which among other things would lead to some heart attacks.Thus, the direction of A Royal Scandal taken over by Otto Preminger. Though he knew still in 1946 to include Cluny Brown . In 1947 , he was awarded the honorary Oscar for his 25-year body of work in the United States. Later that year, he died at the age of 55 his sixth heart attack. His last film, That Lady in Ermine with Betty Grable, was completed by Otto Preminger and released posthumously in 1948 .



  • The story goes that Lubitsch while filming a scene with a German accent would have asked for the scene "mit out sound" to record, without sound. (' Mit ' is German for ' with ', ' with ' the English, and the English ' without ' means ' without ', so ' no sound '). The film term MOS, where a scene without sound is included to add the sound to, would later refer to it (MOS would then mean "Mit Out Sound").