Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (Vienna, 12 August 1887 – d. Dresden, 4 January 1961) was an Austrian physicist, who became famous for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933.
Schrödinger was born in Vienna, the only child of the middle-class couple Rudolf and Georgine Schrödinger. He enjoyed private education to its eleventh year. In 1898 he studied at the Akademisches Gymnasium. As a boy he loved German poetry and excelled in many subjects. In 1906 he went to the University of Vienna, where in 1910 he obtained his doctorate in physics .
At the University, he was strongly influenced by Friedrich Hasenöhrl, a brilliant physicist who would perish during the first world war . During his Nobel speech noticed Schrödinger on that if he was killed, but not not Hasenöhrl Hasenöhrl in Stockholm would have been honored. In 1911 he became Assistant to Professor Franz-Serafin Exner (1849-1936).
In 1914 obtained his habilitationSchrödinger. Between 1914 and 1918 he participated in the first world war as an officer in the Austrian artillery on the Italian front. On 6 april 1920 he married Annemarie Bertel (1896-1965), which he already had met before the war. That same year he became an Assistant to Max Wien at the University of Jena, and in september 1920 he obtained the position of extraordinary Professor of theoretical physics in Stuttgart. In 1921 he was appointed ordinary professor at theUniversity of Breslau.
In the autumn of 1921 he left for the University of Zurich, where he took over the Chair of theoretical physics by Max von Laue. The six years he stayed to Zurich, were probably the most productive of his scientific career. In January 1926, Schrödinger published in the Annalen der Physik the article across the Gulf Eigenwertproblem Quantisierung as mechanics and what is now known as the Schrödinger equation, one of the most famous equations in the quantum mechanics.
In 1927 he succeeded Max Planck on as Professor at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. Because he hated had at the anti-Semitism of the Nazis in 1933, Schrödinger decided to go into exile voluntarily and to leave Germany. Via Frederick Lindemann he ended up on the Magdalen College of the University of Oxford. Shortly after his arrival he received, along with Paul Dirac, the Nobel Prize in physics.
His job at Oxford ran rough; his unconventional personal life style-with two women-was not met with acceptance. In 1934, Schrödinger to the Princeton University lectures;He was even offered a permanent position, but did not in the end. On the other hand, he returned to his native Austria, where he was Professor of Physics in 1936 at theUniversity of Graz.
The Anschluss of Austria to nazi-Germany in 1938 for Germany on problems immediately because of his departure from Schrödinger five years earlier by the German authorities, what was perceived as an unfriendly act. Shortly thereafter he traveled to Italy to flee to Oxford, from which he, and later to the University of Ghent. Of those University he received a honorary doctorateawarded in 1939 .
After a short stay in Ghent, he moved to Ireland, to help build up the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin. This Institute had to be the European counterpart of the American Institute for Advanced Study inPrinceton. Intercession of the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera, a former mathematics teacher, Schrödinger was appointed Director of the school for theoretical physics, a function that was set up especially for him. He continued in Dublin until his retirement in 1955. To this he returned as Professor back to Vienna, where he would die at the age of 73 from complications of tuberculosis.
The basis of his Wave Equation was laid in 1925, when Schrödinger himself during the Christmas holidays with a Viennese ' girlfriend ' in the Swiss ski resort Arosahad withdrawn. His reflections originated from a treatise on the so-called wave-particle dualism of the young French student Louis-Victor de Broglie, Albert Einstein had made him aware of that. The De Broglie hypothesis he put into a mathematical equation,Schrödinger equationnamed after him. On 27 January, he published in Annalen der Physik the first part of the four-part article entitled "Quantization as problem of eigenvalues", in which he recorded the concept ofWave mechanics .  In 1927, he received the Matteucci Medal.
Schrödinger had a long, happy and very open marriage with his wife Annemarie Bertel, the daughter of a respected chemist. He meticulously kept a diary with analyses, names and dates about his numerous sexual escapades, including a teenage girl that he had seduced and impregnated while he was employed as her mathematics teacher.  although his own marriage remained childless, he had illegitimate children in at least three of his mistresses. One of these children was Ruth Georgie Erica, born in Oxford on May 30, 1934 the daughter of him and Hilde March. Hilda was the wife of his colleague Arthur March, which in turn was a lover of Schrödingers wife Anne marie.
- Science and the Human Temperament (1935)
- What is life? (1944)
- Statistical Thermodynamics (1946)
- Space-time Structure (1950)
- Nature and the Greeks (1954)
- Mind and Matter (1958)
- Meine Weltansicht (1961, posthumous)