Idris I of Libya (Arabic: إدريس الأول), born as Baghdad Baghdad Idris bin Sajjid Sajjid al-Mahdi al-Senoessi (Jaghbub, March 12, 1889 - may 25, Cairo, 1983), was the only King of the Kingdom of Libya. Idris I led Libya to independence in 1951 and governed the country until he was deposed after a coup in 1969 by Muammar al-Gaddafi.
Idris was a grandson of Baghdad ibn Ali as-Senoessi, founder of the Sufi Senoessi, a Libyan-order and nomadic tribe. After the resignation of his uncle as regent in 1916was Idris head of the Senoessi.
After the first world war the British recognized him as emir of Cyrenaica, the eastern part of Libya. In 1920, Cyrenaica officially a colony of Italy; the Italians also acknowledged him as emir of Cyrenaica. In 1922, he also became recognized as emir of Tripolitania, the Northwest Libya. Idris established a Government and Parliament and received financial support from the Italians to the colony Libya as semi-autonomous ruler to control.
Idris tried to negotiate with the Italians over independence of Cyrenaica. When this failed, he withdrew, and also served in Egypt a Libyan guerrilla fight against the violent Italian colonial rule. During the Second World War , he supported the British and he fought with his Libyan guerrilla fighters against the Italians and Germans. In 1944, after the Allied victory in North Africa, he came out of exile in Cairo and established his Government in the capital of Benghazi, Cyrenaica.
In the peace treaty with the allies in 1947 gave all his claims to Italy Also gave France its claims to Libya on. the Fezzan occupied by French troops on Libyan region. theGeneral Assembly of the United Nations in 1949 took a motion that Libya had to be independent before 1 January 1952, as one of the first countries in Africa. With the preparation, the Dutch Adriaan Pelt Assistant Secretary General in charge, which as high representative the Board claimed. Idris led the further negotiations with peels.Libya obtained on 23 december 1951 its independence as constitutional monarchy with hereditary succession. Idris was the first King of the country as Idris I of Libya. The Government was divided between two cities: the seat of the Parliament was Tripoli and Benghazi was the seat of the Court and Cabinet of Idris I.
The policy of Idris I was moderate and pro-Westerners. To anger by the anti-Western panarabisten he remained even after the Suez crisis in 1956 and was the British and Americans support them to establish air bases on Libyan territory. Another threat to the regime were the vast oil reserves were discovered in 1959. This created a wealthy elite in the country which benefited from the oil, while most Libyans remained poverty-stricken. The first reaction of Idris on the discovery was that he would have preferred that there water was discovered. A further threat to Idris was that he had no male heir.
Affected by disease per 2 september 1969 Idris decided to abdicate in favor of his nephew Hasan as-Senoessi. He went to Turkey for medical treatment. Before Hasan as-Senoessi could take office as new King grabbed a group of officers led by Muammar al-Gaddafi, on 1 september the power in Libya. The monarchy was abolished and the Socialist Republic of Libya was declared.
The King left Turkey by ship to Kamena Vourla in Greece, after which he went into exile in Egypt and got political asylum . In november 1971 he was by the Libyan people's Court sentenced to death in absentia. Until his death at the age of 94, he lived in Cairo. He is buried in Jannatul Baqi, Medina, Saudi Arabia.Royal standard of Idris I
Idris received several foreign awards, both in the period as if the emir in the period as King.
- Order of the House of Osman of the Ottoman Empire
- Order of the Medjidie of the Ottoman Empire
- Collar of the order of Hussein ibn Ali of Jordan
- Knight Grand Cross of the order of the British Empire.
- Collar of the order of Mohammediya of Morocco
- Grand Cordon of the order of the Nile of Egypt
- Grand Cross of the Legion of honour of France
- Grand Cordon order of Independence of Tunisia
- Grand Cordon of the order of the Cedar of Lebanon
- Grand Cross of the order of merit of Italy
- Grand Cross of the order of the Redeemer of Greece