Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein ( New York , September 28 1930 ) was a prominent Jewish - American sociologist and alter- . Although initially known as an expert in the area of Africa , is his best-known contribution to science, the development of world-systems theory from 1974.
From 1994 to 1998 Wallerstein was president of the International Association of sociologists. Although since 1999 he has retired several honorary degrees received, and an appointment as a researcher at the University of Yale .
The world system theory falls under the "critical currents" of international relations and leans partly on the theories of Marx . Another part of the theory relies on the work of the French historianFernand Braudel on the development of early capitalism from 1400 to 1800 and in addition, a large part by Wallerstein recorded as a result of extensive experience in Africa. The last major influence is the dependencia theory recognizing that the exploitative relationship of the 3rd world by the 1st world is central.
The world system theory was put set for the first time in 1974 in the first book of a series of four on the modern world-system , the development of European economic integration describes the sixteenth century. This integration resulted already at this early stage in a global economy (with hyphen), not in the sense that the economy would cover the world, but she is an economic and political world in itself. The European capitalist world-economy is unique in history because they have no empire is but a world system consisting of several states . The development of the world system is one of expansion in phases: development as colonialism , imperialism and globalization are stages in the growth of the European world system into a global system.
The theory assumes that in a capitalist system, the international economic world order rather than interdependent, and therefore equivalent, there is a dependence is thus one of exploitation. The different regions of the world can be divided three parts according to the theory: the core , the semi-periphery and periphery . The theory deals with the relationship between these three parts in a historical context that is in sync with the emergence of a global market . The core areas are the Western world include the capital and most powerful areas particularly need cheap raw materials and foods that are exchanged for example high-quality industrial goods. The periphery provides the cheap raw materials and food and swapping for the goods from the core. As a result, the core areas better at the expense of the periphery areas. The semi periphery consists of the areas that combine characteristics of core and periphery. These core areas may be in decline, or peripheral areas of development.
Some key areas may be so strong that they hegemony exercise over the other players in the system. Unique to capitalism is that such hegemony does not lead to the formation of an empire like that happened. in other historical cases of economic integration [1 ]
According to the theory, these areas are to be designated, not only on a global scale can also interior core and periphery areas are found, the poor periphery supplies raw materials to the industrialized core.
Wallerstein chooses his work explicitly for a non-disciplinary approach '(as distinct from a multidisciplinary). According to him, the dividing lines between anthropology , economics , political science , sociology and history based on theliberal state conception and bothersome in the study of social systems in their entirety. 
Capitalism emerged as Wallerstein after the crisis in the feudalism of the late Middle Ages . Meanwhile capitalism itself entered a crisis, since the beginning of the 20th century continues. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was the "symbolic inflammation" of this crisis. Wallerstein does not intend to predictions of an early end to capitalism: on the contrary, the system is stronger than ever, and a cool, analytical attitude prevents disillusionment about the possibility of systemic change. 
Criticism of the world-systems theory focuses on the deterministic nature of the relationships and the role of the capitalist world system. In addition, it is often not clear when there is the semi-periphery. Nevertheless, the world system theory is an important theory in current international relations.
Wallerstein's analysis of Leninism as the Soviet Union was put into practice is remarkable: he sees it as a form of liberalism , which fits in the world capitalist system. The development that Leninism was going through, a theory of world revolution and socialism in one country and ultimately the division of the world at the Yalta Conference , Wallerstein sees as a brake on revolutionary unrest elsewhere in the world. The final fall of communism is a logical consequence of this development, but according to Wallerstein not a victory of liberalism, but an acknowledgment that change within the capitalist system is not possible. 
The three-part series on the world system theory makes only a modest part of the oeuvre of Wallerstein:
- The Modern World-System, vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century . New York / London: Academic Press, 1974.
- The Modern World-System, vol. II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600-1750 . New York: Academic Press, 1980.
- The Modern World-System, vol. III: The Second Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730-1840's . San Diego: Academic Press, 1989.
- 1961: Africa, The Politics of Independence . New York: Vintage.
- 1964: The Road to Independence: Ghana and the Ivory Coast . Paris & The Hague: Mouton.
- 1967: Africa: The Politics of Unity . New York: Random House.
- 1969: University in Turmoil: The Politics of Change . New York: Atheneum.
- 1972 (with Evelyn Jones Rich ): Africa: Tradition and Change . New York: Random House.
- 1974: The Modern World-System, vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century . New York / London: Academic Press.
- 1979: The Capitalist World-Economy . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1980: The Modern World-System, vol. II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600-1750 . New York: Academic Press.
- 1982 (with Terence K. Hopkins et al): World-Systems Analysis: Theory and Methodology . Beverly Hills: Sage.
- 1982 (with Samir Amin , Giovanni Arrighi and Andre Gunder Frank ): Dynamics of Global Crisis . London: Macmillan.
- 1983: Historical Capitalism . London: Verso.
- 1984: The Politics of the World-Economy. The States, the Movements and the Civilizations . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1986: Africa and the Modern World . Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
- 1989: The Modern World-System, vol. III: The Second Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730-1840's . San Diego: Academic Press.
- 1989 (with Giovanni Arrighi and Terence K. Hopkins): Antisystemic Movements . London: Verso.
- 1990 (with Samir Amin, Giovanni Arrighi and Andre Gunder Frank ): Transforming the Revolution: Social Movements and the World-System . New York: Monthly Review Press.
- 1991 (with Etienne Balibar ): Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities . London: Verso.
- 1991: Geopolitics and Geoculture: Essays on the Changing World-System . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- 1991: Unthinking Social Science: The Limits of Nineteenth Century Paradigms . Cambridge: Polity.
- 1995: After Liberalism . New York: New Press.
- 1995: Historical Capitalism, with Capitalist Civilization . London: Verso.
- 1998: Utopistics: Or, Historical Choices of the Twenty-first Century. New York: New Press.
- 1999: The End of the World As We Know It: Social Science for the Twenty-first Century . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
- 2003: Decline of American Power: The U.S. in a Chaotic World . New York: New Press.
- 2004: The Uncertainties of Knowledge . Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- 2004: World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction . Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
- 2004: Alternatives: The U.S. Confronts the World . Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Press.
- 2006: European Universalism: The Rhetoric of Power . New York: New Press.