Jacques Derrida ( El-Biar , Algeria , July 15 1930 - Paris , October 9 2004 ) was a French literary critic and philosopher , and is regarded as the founder of deconstruction .

His voluminous work had a profound influence on continental philosophy and literary theory . Derrida is often associated with post-structuralism and postmodernism , though he never used the latter term, and it is dissociated.


 [ hide ] *1 Life

Life edit ]Edit

Jacques Derrida grew up in El Biar, Algeria . He came from a non-intellectual Jewish family. As a result of the Franco-Algerian anti-Semitic policies under the Vichy regime , he was like most other Jews discriminated against in that time and expelled. In 1949 he moved to France , where he lived. the rest of his life

Derrida studied from 1952 at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris in include Michel Foucault and Louis Althusser . During the Algerian War of Independence, Derrida asked to teach., by way of alternative civilian service, from 1957 to 1959 children of soldiers in French and English After the war he joined the Tel Quel group consisting of literary and philosophical theorists.At the same time, from 1960 to 1964, he taught philosophy at the Sorbonne , then another twenty years at the École Normale Supérieure, where he had studied themselves. He completed his thesis d'État (a kind of thesis) in 1980 , which was later translated into English under the title "The Time of a Thesis: Punctuations". Until his death he was director of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris. In 1983 he founded together with François Châtelet and others, the International College of Philosophy (French: Ciph [1] ), a research institute that gave room for philosophical research and lectures which was an opportunity anywhere else in academia. He was elected first president.

From its first reading in 1966 at the Johns Hopkins University , where his essay " Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences presented ", Derrida's work attracted international attention. For the rest of his life he traveled a lot and he received a number of positions as a teacher, both as a permanent, especially at American universities. Since 1986 he was Professor of Humanities at the University of California in Irvine , who now owns a large collection of his manuscripts.

Derrida was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and received the Adorno Prize in 2001 from the University of Frankfurt . He received honorary degrees fromCambridge University (after some controversy), Columbia University , University of Essex , the Catholic University of Leuven , and Williams College .

In 2003, when Derrida aggressive pancreatic cancer detected, causing him to greatly reduce its activities. He died in a Paris hospital on the night of Friday to Saturday October 9th 2004 .

Two years before his death, in 2002, was an American documentary about Derrida, Derrida: The Movie , by Kirby Dick and Amy Ziering Kofman music by Ryuichi Sakamoto . This took the form of an intense dialogue which explores the relationship between his theory and his personal life. [2]

Work edit ]Edit

Earliest works edit ]Edit

Derrida's earliest work was a critique of the limits of phenomenology : his first thesis dealt with Edmund Husserl , filed in 1954 and much later published as Le problème de la genèse dans la philosophie Husserl . In 1962 he translated Husserl's essay Origin of Geometry and he foresaw the introduction of its own.

Derrida first gained international attention with his lecture "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences" which he gave at the Johns Hopkins University in 1966 (the text was then incorporated into L'écriture et la différence (1967 )). The conference was about the structuralism , which at that time France had reached its peak, but only recently started to gain attention in the United States . Derrida differed from other participants due to lack of explicit support for the structuralist movement, which he had criticized in advance. He showed appreciation for their performance, but at the same time had reservations about the internal constraints, which one Derrida's thinking as a form of post-structuralism would consider.

The influence of Derrida's contribution to the conference was so significant that when the results of the conference were published in 1970, the collection titled The Structuralist Controversy had received. At this conference, he met the Belgian literary critic Paul de Man , with whom he would share a long friendship and that would also appear. a great source of controversy He also met the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan , on whose work he had mixed feelings.

1967-1972 edit ]Edit

Derrida published in 1967, three anthologies: The Grammatology , L'écriture et la differance and La voix et le phénomène . These three books contain Derrida's interpretations of many philosophers, including both philosophers Jean-Jacques Rousseau , Edmund Husserl , Emmanuel Levinas , Martin Heidegger , GWF Hegel , Michel Foucault , Georges Bataille and René Descartes , as anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss , paleontologist André Leroi -Gourhan , psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud , linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and writers like Edmond Jabès and Antonin Artaud . In these three strands of the "principles" of deconstruction emerged, were not theoretical explanation but rather by demonstration, in which he showed that arguments brought forth by their subject, the opposite parameters in which they found themselves, surpassed and contradictions. Thus the work of Derrida actually rather read a form of a form of writing. He reads texts in a critical manner and will make comments on these texts, the "psychoanalysis of the lyrics." Derrida's work for the next five years was summarized in two anthologies in 1972: La dissemination and Margins de la philosophie . At the same time a bunch of interviews published (later, in 1981, when bundled Positions ).

Communication Edit ]Edit

According to Derrida, the relationship between the sign and the referent was not fixed, but is determined by context, political beliefs and prejudices of the transmitter and receiver. (See also: Ferdinand de Saussure ).

Texts edit ]Edit

[1][2]Derrida's grave in Ris-Orangis , France

The philosophical texts of Derrida in some people call a large resistance. Derrida said in an interview that this kind of anger arises when the manner and rhythm of reading does not want to change.

Important works are

  • La voix et le phénomène (1967) ( The voice and the phenomenon: introduction to the problem of the character in the phenomenology of Husserl , Jacques vert Deryckere and Rudolf Bernet, Ambo 1989.)
  • L'écriture et la differance (1967) (partly in: Violence and Metaphysics: Essay on the thinking of Emmanuel Levinas , vert Dirk De Schutter, Cook Agora / Pelckmans, 1996.)
  • Of Grammatology (1967)
  • Margins de la philosophie (1972)
  • Glass (1974)
  • De l'hospitalization lite (1977) ( About hospitality , vert. Walter van der Star & Rokus Hofstede , Tree 1998)
  • Eperons: Les styles Nietzsche (1978) ( Tracks: the styles of Nietzsche , vert Ger Groot, Wereldvenster 1985 SUN 2005.)
  • De l'esprit: Heidegger et la question (1987)
  • Psyche: inventions de l'autre (1987) (partly in: How not to speak: Dionysius, Eckhart and the paradigms of negativity , vert Rico Faster, Cook Agora / Pelckmans 1997.)
  • Spectres de Marx (1993)
  • Force de loi Le 'fundament mystique de l'auto rite (1994) ( Power of Law: the "mystical foundation of authority  , vert Rico Faster, Agora / Pelckmans 2001.)
  • Mal d'Archive: Une Impression freudienne (1995)
  • Donner la mort (1999) ( The Gift of Death , trans. Sophia in 't Ende, Klement / Pelckmans 2006)
  • Voyous (2003)