Kurt Tucholsky (Berlin, 1890 - January 9, Göteborg, 21 december 1935) was a German writer, columnist and journalist during the interwar period. Because he wrote so much, pseudonyms, such as Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel.
Tucholsky's fellow writer Erich Kästner had once described him as a "little fat Berliner who wanted to prevent a catastrophe with his typewriter '.
Tucholsky is counted among the wittiest and most important publicists from the Weimar Republic. Except a lot of column-like pieces, reviews and journalistic reports, he published several novels, many song texts and poems. Dutch authors as Annie M.G. Schmidt, Karel van het Reve and Simon Carmiggelt have inspired by the work of Tucholsky.
In his work showed a Democrat, Tucholsky a pacifist and a fierce opponent of national socialism. From 1924 he lived more or less permanently abroad-first in Paris and later inSweden. There he came in 1935 to life after taking a large amount of sleeping pills. It is generally assumed that this is suicide. His biographer Michael Hepp in doubt about this.According to him, it would go to an accident. In any case seemed Tucholsky written out the last years of his life. The only known works from these years are some (wrenching) letters.Kurt Tucholsky on a German postage stamp of 80 Pfennig
Tucholsky was born in 1890 in Berlin as the oldest son of the Jewish banker Alex Tucholsky and his niece Doris Tucholsky. He studied law in Berlin and Geneva, but began already during his studies, more interested in the literature. For example, Tucholsky as one of the first who discovered the work of Franz Kafka . He success with its first own literary attempts, as Rheinsberg – ein Bilderbuch für Verliebte ("Rheinsberg. A picture book for lovers ', 1912).
During the early years of the first world war was Tucholsky-who has since promoted was used as soldier -at the Eastern front. This experience has made an indelible impression on the young writer and convinced him of the pacifism for good and the antimilitarism.
After the war began an extremely creative period in Tucholsky's life. He wrote several dozen articles in a week time, among other things for the magazines That Weltbühneand Ulk . To do this, he used a variety of pseudonyms, which gradually divestitures were Tucholsky's's own personality: they had their own voice and sometimes even performed with each other in discussion.
The 1920s were turbulent years in Tucholsky's private life. In 1920 , he married the doctor Else Weil, from whom he separated in 1924 . In the same year, he married Mary Gerold, from whom he was separated in 1933 ; with Rolled he would keep in touch until his death, however, and they would also take care of his legacy. During both marriages remained the writer reportedly his wife not very faithful. From 1927 he had a relationship with the journalist Lisa Matthias.
In this period brought Tucholsky, like Heinrich Heine, his example ever most time in France by from which he blasted his homeland with ever more bitter becoming pamphlets.For years before Hitler came to power, Tucholsky wrote: They are gearing to withdraw to the Third Reich.
In the early thirties is a process filed against Tucholsky's Publisher Carl von Ossietzky, among other things because of the written sentence by Tucholsky Soldiers sind Mörder(soldiers are killers). That Tucholsky, who has since lived in the Swedish Hindås , when not to assist his friend has gone to Germany, he has himself in the following years very resent. Even though he saw little sense in that it would have had. Kurt died in 1935 and is buried in Mariefred, Sweden. Gripsholm, one of his novels is situated in Mariefred.The tomb is a "pilgrimage" for Poland and Germans.Tucholsky's cemetery in Mariefred.
In these last years, in which the relationship with Matthias was broken and he suffered from unclear complaints to the nose, Tucholsky published nothing more. Though he wrote many letters, which have been issued in Germany since the 1960s. Known include the letters to the Zurich doctor Hedwig Müller, the so-called Q-journals. In one of his last letters, however, he turned back to his ex-wife Mary Gerold, writing about himself in the third person singular:
- "Hat einen Goldklumpen in der Rechenpfennigen gehabt und sich nach gebückt Hand; hat nicht gemacht hat, black hat nicht Dummheiten wits und verraten, aber betrogen, und hat nicht wits."
- "Had a nugget in his hand and reached down to grab money; didn't understand and made stupid mistakes, but not betrayed, deceived, and didn't understand. "