Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (Vienna26 april 1889 – 29 april Cambridge1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher. He has contributed much to the philosophy of language and to the foundations of the logic. He also made contributions to the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of mind. He is considered a pioneer in theanalytic philosophy and ranks as one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century. His late work is in addition connected to the school by the Ordinary language philosophy. His older brother was the pianist Paul Wittgenstein.


[hide]*1 early life

Life Course[Edit]Edit

Wittgenstein was the youngest child of an Austrian industrialist, Karl Wittgenstein, who was head of one of the richest families of the country, then still the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy. Because Ludwig Wittgenstein does not have the required for training had for the Viennese gymnasium, he had had private lessons at home, his father sent him to a Realschule in Linz where also Adolf Hitler on sat and a grade lower. He is trained as a mechanical engineer and examined and improved a while the aircraft design. By its engineers study he came into contact with problems, which concerned the foundations of mathematics. This issue brought him into contact with Frege (one of the founders of the formal logic) and later with the world famous philosopher Bertrand Russell, who was Cambridge. At the beginning of the first world war he enlisted as a volunteer for the German-Austrian army. He had a booklet of Tolstoy about the Gospels in his backpack. He made notes on the front from which later would grow the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus .

Wittgenstein held in some periods of his life diaries and carried out extensive correspondence with all kinds of people. That written sources were important in the interpretation of its philosophy.

During the Second World War worked as an ambulance and a medical brother Wittgenstein research laboratory. After the war he returned to Cambridge, but Wittgenstein gave his chair in 1947 on. He died in 1951.

Wittgenstein has made an important change in his philosophical development. Even so much that one speaks of Wittgenstein I and Wittgenstein II, although that distinction, of course, up for debate.

An extensive biography of Wittgenstein, both personal and philosophical, was written by Ray Monk, and appeared in 1991 under the title The Duty of Genius, in the Dutch translated as the Holy should.

Wittgenstein I[Edit]Edit

[1][2]Wittgenstein's notes from 1914

The first I is the principal work of Wittgenstein Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. This work appeared in 1921/1922 and was experienced as incomprehensible and unsaleable.Bertrand Russell, with whom Wittgenstein had a very good contact at that time, it has made efforts for the Edition and a preface to the book written-which Wittgenstein besides total was not satisfied. The Tractatus-named after Spinoza's Tractatus theologico-politician -consists of a series of numbered objectives. It deals with the language in relation to the domain of knowledgeethicsaesthetics and religion. According to Wittgenstein I can deal with language only makes sense if it "States of affairs" are described (in this he follows his example Augustine, whose work he later strongly criticize will). On the other he says: "about which one can not speak, thereof one can not but be silent." (German:Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss man schweigen.) It is an open door and no commandment (which in German with "pushed around" is shown.) The book was very popular in the Vienna Circle and eventually the PhD on Wittgenstein delivered.

Although there is nothing sensible about ethics and such according to Wittgenstein, although it can be said, he finds this transcendental matters very important. This place is the ultimate life fulfillment. He has some sort of categorical imperative: "experience the world as it is". Incidentally also the Tractatus Wittgenstein I regarded as non meaningful language. But it was the ladder that was needed to achieve that understanding. After that, he could be thrown out.

With the Tractatus Wittgenstein thought he had solved all the problems of philosophy. Among other things therefore he stopped philosophy. He donated his fortune to his sister (which was itself already very rich and could therefore not be negatively influenced by the money) and was a teacher a few years on a primary school and also equally gardener in a monastery-where he has considered a entry. From 1926 to 1928 he worked as an architect at a House for one of his sisters.

Wittgenstein II[Edit]Edit

In 1929 he returned to philosophy. He was Professor in Cambridge. Appeared posthumously In 1953 the second main work philosophical investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen), actually a collection of notes that Wittgenstein had endeavored for years to prepare for publication, something in which he was never successful due to thorough perfectionism. The lessons he dictated to his students and other notes are posthumously published as the blue and the Brown Book.

Critics are not yet agreed whether it is a radical turnaround in Wittgenstein's ' thinking, or an evolution of his thoughts from the Tractatus. Wittgenstein has gradually come to the conclusion that language too complex to the world in a one-to-one relationship to describe. So it is impossible to for example a dismissive sighs visible within the language system. Instead, he speaks of language games. The different language games are applicable to different situations, each a "family resemblance" occurs. Although there are specific characteristics for each situation, not all features apply to all situations, such as members of the same family are similar, without being exactly the same facial traits. It is with this new vision of language that he exercised much influence on other philosophers, mainly in the Ordinary language philosophy. A well-known critic of these later Wittgensteiniaanse philosophy was the philosopher and anthropologist Ernest Gellner, mainly in his book Words and Things (1959).

Wittgenstein's philosophy in Dutch[Edit]Edit

In Wittgenstein's thinking was introduced by the Netherlands writer W.F. HermansWittgenstein in the fashion that the pamphlet (1967) wrote the Tractatus , and translated (1975); not entirely to the satisfaction of vakfilosofen.

Other works by Wittgenstein in the Dutch have appeared:

  • About security (Über Gewißheit), translated by Sybe Terwee (Meppel: Boom, 1977)
  • Lectures on ethics, aesthetics, psychology and religious faith (Wittgenstein's Lectures on Ethics and Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology and Religious Belief), trans. Brian Plantenga (Meppel: Boom, 1979)
  • Loose comments (Vermischte Bemerkungen, in English appeared as Culture and Value), a choice of the legacy by G.H. von Wright, translated by Willem de Ruiter and Wim Stange (Baarn: World window, 1979)
  • Comments about the colors (Bemerkungen über die Farben), transl. Paul Wijdeveld (Amsterdam: Tabula, 1982)
  • Philosophical investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen), vert Derksen and Maarten Sybe Terwee (Amsterdam: tree, 1992)
  • Clippings (Zettel), trans. Wilfred orange (Amsterdam: Boom, 1995)
  • The blue and the Brown book (The Blue and Brown Books), trans. Wilfred orange (Amsterdam: tree, 1996)
  • Philosophical reflections: on ethics, aesthetics, psychoanalysis, religion and anthropology (Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology, and Religious BeliefLecture on Ethics and Frazers Bemerkungen über Golden Bough), trans. Wilfred orange (Amsterdam: tree, 1998)
  • Think movements: Journals 1930-1932/1936-1937 (Denkbewegungen), trans. Wilfred orange (Amsterdam: tree, 2000)