Marc Chagall, born as Sjagal Movsja Zacharovitsj (Захарович Шагал,Russian: Мовша Yiddish: סג ל "or שאַגאַל משה) (Vitebsk, 7 July 1887 – Saint-Paul-de-Vence, 28 March 1985) was a French painter of Jewish-Belarusian descent.
Chagall was born in the part of the Empire Russia that Belarus is nowadays. He Later twisted his name to the more French Marc Chagall. He was the son of a simple herring merchant and the oldest of nine children. The family was Jewish Hasidic. This poor but happy period in his work back in numerous times Chagalls life returns.
After he got at primary school he was introduced to drawing from 1906 painting lessons by local artist, Yehuda Pen. His mother encouraged his artistic ambitions and a few months later, in 1907, he moved to Saint Petersburg to study at the Academy of fine arts under the leadership of Nikolai Roerich. From 1908 to 1910 he studied under the direction of Leon Bakst at the Zvantsevas art school. Bakst was standing when at the beginning of a great career as a set designer.
This was a difficult period for Chagall. Jewish citizens could only live in St. Petersburg with a permit and he spent a short time in prison. Yet he remained in St. Petersburg until 1910, he already visited Vitebsk with great regularity. There he met his future wife, Bella Rosenfeld in 1909.' The walk ', 1917, on Belarusian stamp
In 1910 moves Chagall to Paris, the then Center of the cultural life. After one and a half year have brought in rooms at Montparnasse , he moved to "La Ruche" an area on the outskirts of the city where the artists lived. He became friends with a number of avant-garde poets and young artists such as Guillaume Apollinaire, Robert Delaunay , andFernand Léger. This period is often called his best period with works like "I and the Village" ("I and the village").
Marc Chagall took part in the exhibition of the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d'Automne. His first major solo exhibition took place in Der Sturm Gallery in Berlin in 1914.After the outbreak of the first world war returned Marc Chagall back to Russia, where he participated in exhibitions in St Petersburg and Moscow. By the war he could not return to his studio in Paris in peacetime, what he found on arrival plundered and in decline. A year later he marries his fiancee, Bella and in 1916 received Chagall a daughter, Ida.
Chagall was at first enthusiastic about the Russian Revolution of 1917 and became politically active. The Soviet Ministry of culture makes him Vitebsk Commissioner of art in the region, where he made ambitious plans for an art school and a museum. But after two and a half he was tired of the disagreement and discussion in the political and cultural climate and moved to Moscow. From 1919 to 1922 he was art director of the Jewish State theater in Moscow. Here he made several murals for the lobby as well as stage sets for the performances.
In 1922 Chagall and his family left Russia for good. First they went to Berlin but soon traveled to Paris, where he settled in 1923 again-this time with his family-established. In1927 he illustrated the fable bundle of Jean de la Fontaine, which in 2003 a republication in book form has appeared. He made trips to Palestine (1931) and Poland (1935) and worked until the Second World War to his Bible illustrations. In 1937 the Chagall acquired French citizenship. Because of the German occupation of France during the second world war and the persecution of Jews, fled Chagall. The American journalist Varian Fry helped him escape from France. Via Spain and Portugal came Chagall with his family in 1941 in the United States of America where he settled in New York.
On 2 september 1944 Bella his wife died after an illness. Two years later in 1946 Chagall returned back to Europe. In Europe the artist honored with exhibitions in Paris, London and Amsterdam. In 1950 he settled in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. Chagall with Valentina Brodsky remarried In 1952. He traveled several times to Greece and to Israel in 1957. Here he made in 1960 a series of Windows for the synagogue of the Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem and a series of murals for the new Parliament in 1966. Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall In 1973 opens in Nice, France, to House hundreds of his Biblical scenes. The museum in Vitebsk, named after him, opened in 1997 in the House where he lived with his family, in the Pokrovskaiastraat at number 29. Ironically he was until his death, before the fall of the Soviet Union, a persona non grata in his homeland. Chagall died at the age of 97 in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France.Orpheus
His work is often associated with surrealism. But actually his work falls under different currents already makes it nowhere at all part of it. Chagall has its own style that dreamy to does. He took his inspiration from the Russian folk art and people's life, his memories of his youth and the role of Judaism in this. He combined elements including the color of the modern styles he met in Paris. His work shows traces of Expressionism, Cubism and Fauvism see. Also he portrayed with great regularity Bible scenes.
His youth is a recurring theme in his work. The rabbis, goats and musicians who in his paintings, find there their origin. Chagalls work is very exuberant in color.Picasso once said about him ' the only artist who even knows what color is '.
A rational analysis of his work be Chagall af, painting was for him an intuitive process.
Although he was, as well as Picasso, beware the comparatively high age ceramic art private made, the ceramic work of Chagall as a highlight in the contemporary ceramics. It is the same energy and zest for life as his experiments with painting decades earlier. He also knows to establish itself in the tradition, but to renew them at the same time.
In the 1960s, Chagall was already about seventy years old, he began teaching himself making stained-glass Windows . He knew this centuries-old tradition, as well as those of the ceramics, camouflage and renew, it stimulated by his wife. Typical are the sparkling colors and the high degree of symbolism, which has made them perfect for religious purposes. This is also decisive for its huge popularity. Chagall worked together with the Glaziers from the Studio of Charles Marq from Reims. This Studio has experience with this craft since the 15th century, and employees of Marq claimed almost all of Marc Chagall stained glass designs from.
Stained glass Windows are made, inter alia, in the cathedrals of Metz and Reims and in the St. Stephan's Church in Mainz for which Chagall designed nine Windows (the other 18 Windows were designed in the same style by Charles Marq).
By the religious ban on portraying people, where it holds itself strictly to Judaism , is a Jewish painter tradition never developed. As a result, there was a lot of space for the artist, who had to keep itself but to few conventions. However, there were also a lot of problems, because typical Jewish themes did not exist and the reference framework so by the first generation Jewish artists had to be invented. Painters such as Chagall, Chaïm Soutine and Jacques Lipchitz suggest that soon became an identity found by the Jewish painters, because their works are very similar in terms of what style and themes.
Chagalls position and influence here are not to overestimate. Except one of the oldest Jewish painters, he was also the longest living and he has thereby always had and that of leading beacon for other artists, to which they could work their keys. His memories of his youth, who formed his main inspiration, show all kinds of Jewish themes which were never shown. Rabbis, violinists, workers from the ghetto, synagogues, all leave a Jewish culture that others never before so freely and lovingly pictured was, with all its defects and plus points. A cautionary note that often heard is that Chagall in his nearly 98-year-old life never has dealt with a different theme and has used his success as it were without new artistic to take risks.
- Au-dessus de Vitebsk, 1914
- The white crucifixion
- Exodus, 1952-1966
- The marriage, 1910
- Hommage à Apollinaire, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven
- I and the village, 1911, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- Madonna with sleighs, 1947, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
- Opéra GarnierCeiling, 1964, Paris
- Self-portrait with seven fingers, 1913, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
Bonjour Paris 1939 - 1942, Parijs, Chagall