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Mobutu Sese Seko ( Lisala , October 14 1930 - Rabat , September 7th 1997 ), born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu , was president of the Congo , in the period from 1971 to 1997 Zaire was called.

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 [ hide ] *1 Biography

Biography edit ]Edit

Ethnicity and youth edit ]Edit

Mobutu went as a child to school with the priests Capuchins . According to his later hofbiograaf Francis Monheim, he would have kept to this period. Bad memories [source?] In November 1950, Mobutu enrolled at the Ecole Centrale des Sous-Officiers to Luluaburg . There, he studied for two years a course secretarial and accounting. He obtained the rank of sergeant. After three years Luluaburg he was transferred to the headquarters of the Wehrmacht to Congo Leopoldville . Meanwhile, he was also a journalist with the Congolese newspaper Actualités Africa Ines. Because he was a soldier, Mobutu had to write under the pseudonym J. Debanzy.

Lumumbist in Belgium edit ]Edit

In 1958 Mobutu first visited Belgium . Following the World several Congolese were invited to brighten.'s 'Congo Palace' Back in Congo Mobutu lives a fiery speech Patrice Lumumba in and immediately becomes a 'Lumumbist. A year later he was again travel to Belgium. Sabena had in fact some Congolese journalists and representatives of the Congolese press invited.Mobutu spent more than a year in Belgium. Just at this time the struggle for independence broke out in Congo. The Belgian government decided to proceed with a rapid independence. The main Congolese politicians were invited to Brussels to attend. A round table meeting at Mobutu, who was still in Brussels was staying, was so very closely followed the roundtable. At the start of the conference was Lumumba still in prison in Leopoldville. Mobutu knocked on several bodies to Lumumba to get free. That finally happened. Lumumba immediately traveled to Brussels to join the Congolese delegation. Immediately after his arrival he introduced Mobutu as his secretary.

Colonel during the Congo Crisis edit ]Edit

On June 30 1960 King Baudouin and his ministers traveled to Leopoldville for the official celebration of independence Congo. Lumumba became prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu President of the new nation. The government Lumumba Mobutu was charged with defense matters. So there gradually began to sprout. Militaristic a seed in him Shortly after independence, Congo, however, would end up in a deep crisis. On July 5 hit the Army in Leopoldville mutinied. To make matters worse, the rich province separated Katanga on July 11 under the leadership of Moise Tshombe off. The separation was not disapproved by Belgium - on the contrary, Belgium began to implement a pro-Katanga politics.Lumumba and Kasavubu then promptly called in the help of the UN .

On August 9, followed by Albert Kalonji the example of the Katangezen: he called the autonomous state South Kasai out. On August 27 forces under the command of Chief of Staff Mobutu, the capital of South Kasai in names. The rebels did not have an army and the capture of the capital was a real massacre. The soldiers murdered entire villages, the UN spoke of genocide . The crimes of the Congolese soldiers led to outrage in the international press. While the soldiers were under the command of Mobutu, Lumumba as the major culprit was identified was.

The first coup edit ]Edit

Meanwhile ended Congolese politics also in deep crisis. Western governments regarded Lumumba as dangerous, unpredictable and as pro-communist . Kasavubu was edited from Brussels and Washington to dismiss. Lumumba That's what he did on September 5 , 1960. Lumumba did not just put aside themselves and in turn Kasavubu dismissed. At this time, Mobutu appeared (in the meantime become a colonel in the Congolese army) for the first time on the political stage. He announced on September 14 via the radio that he had decided to "neutralize." the two chambers, the president and prime minister Mobutu could not yet be considered at this stage as the "strong man" of Congo. His instrument of power, the army was disorganized, poorly armed, undisciplined and divided along ethnic lines. The main effect of his " coup "was that he knew politics Lumumba off. In December, Lumumba was arrested by Mobutu's troops and extradited to his "blood enemies" in Katanga where he was killed.

Career in the army edit ]Edit

After the arrest of Lumumba Mobutu withdrew from politics. He was in the military field have more than full, however the coming months and years hands. In several places vomiting uprisings and revolutionary movements. However, the Congolese soldiers were unable to fight the rebels. Using the Western troops and mercenaries Mobutu still managed rebels in Katanga and Kwilu subject. Mobutu was the personification of national unity.

The second coup edit ]Edit

On 24 November 1965, Mobutu felt that his time had come and he committed another coup. This time proved to be the final coup. Mobutu consolidated his power immediately. He abolished the parliament and the multiparty system off.His party, the MPR was the only party authorized by the Constitution. Mobutu quickly proved a cruel dictator . For example, he never hesitated to physically turn off. Opponents So he left in May 1966, putting four politicians in public (later called "the Pentecostal Suspensions"). In addition, were also universities victim of Mobutisme. In 1968 for the first riots broke out when the students demanded the liberalization of the regime. A year later, on January 4 , 1969 , was re-organized. a student manifestation This ended in a clash between students and security forces who used firearms. The dozens of dead were thrown into a mass grave, and a few days later, all student organizations were banned. Two years later came to a heavy hit. On 2 June 1971 the students commemorated Lovanium their deceased comrades within the confines of the campus. The army tried to disperse the demonstration and strike again came to heavy riots.

Mobutu's policy edit ]Edit

Furthermore, Mobutu left the name of the country in 1971 turn into Zaire . "It Mobutisme 'was established as a national ideology and Mobutu was to be regarded as' messiah '. His policy was mainly aimed to enrich themselves. He was obsessed with the ambition to "the richest man in Africa to be." To skim off large parts of the state revenues, he amassed billions. The Congolese people to pay the piper, and suffered hunger. Meanwhile, Mobutu was supported by the Western leaders and other African dictators: Idi Amin Dada , Muhammad Siad Barre and Robert Gabriel Mugabe . With the support of these dictators Mobutu could manipulate his country. His reign is estimated at 160,000 people killed[source?] .

Mobutu has given himself many titles such as The Guide and The Marshal . He was known for his excessive partying and expensive possessed billions in property abroad.

Propaganda edit ]Edit

Example of Goebbels and propaganda inventiviteiten in China and North Korea Mobutu had a unique political propaganda. Sakombi Inongo , Mobutu's information minister thought a whole personality cult strategy, which Mobutu when people came across as a deity. Thus began the evening programs for a while with a picture of Mobutu who emerged from the clouds. This image, which is now no longer impress us with the computerization of Western society, was indeed a great impression on the poor civilians in young Zaire. For the leader were written many songs that were sung when the president visited a village or town, and despite the grinding poverty in which he plunged his country, he wanted to see smiling and singing people.

Africanization edit ]Edit

Mobutu was wearing their own uniform, based on the Nehru suit, with frivolous African influences. The high-necked jacket with leopard print, the abacost, gradually became mandatory wear for public servants. Also, women were encouraged to dress. Afrikaans instead of Western

Changing all names in African names was part of the Afrikaniseringspolitiek. 'Les trois z': both coin, river and land now were called Zaire. Mobutu took the lead by changing 'Joseph-Désiré Mobutu' in 'Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku wa za Banga Ngbendu' (= strong, powerful leader who will bring the country to prosperity) his name.

The end of his reign edit ]Edit

As of 1990 , however.'s international climate change The Cold War ended and the Western governments needed allies other than the kind of dictators that they had tolerated from the 60s. The dictatorships were now replaced bydemocracies . Mobutu gradually lost all his allies, and his regime was doomed. Mobutu tried not to implement reforms by themselves in 1990 to announce the end of the one-party state and to create a three-party state, which he officially took away his party space MPR . But the genie was out of the bottle and the National Sovereign Conference that reforms had to make was after by Mobutu, more powerful than expected and was, after a massacre been boycotted February 16, 1992 at a protest march against the closure, reopened with the Chairman that a pawn was replaced Mobutu was Monsignor Monsengwo . In 1994 Mobutu, who had to prostate cancer suffered above in Switzerlandare treated. During his absence created a rebellion in eastern Zaire. The rebels seized, led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila in power in May 1997 . The name of Zaire changed again after 26 years in the Congo .

Mobutu fled and left penniless after Congo. He died in Rabat in Morocco to the effects of prostate cancer .