Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, also known as The Meaning of Life, is a 1983 British musical-sketch comedy film written and performed by the Monty Python team, and directed by one of its members, Terry Jones. Unlike Holy Grail and Life of Brian, this film's two predecessors, which each told a single, more-or-less coherent story, The Meaning of Life returns to thesketch comedy format of the troupe's original television series, loosely structured as a series of comic sketches about the various stages of life.
- 2 Cast
- 3 Pre-production and production
- 4 Release
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The film begins with a stand-alone 17-minute supporting feature entitled The Crimson Permanent Assurance (directed by Terry Gilliam). A group of elderly office clerks in a small accounting firm rebel against their emotionlessly efficient, yuppie corporate masters. They commandeer their building, turn it into a pirate ship, and sail into a large financial district, where they raid and overthrow a large multinational corporation.
The film itself opens with several fish in a restaurant aquarium, performed by the Pythons. They look on and see one of their number, Howard, being eaten by a customer, and then start to ask themselves about the meaning of life.
The film proper consists of a series of distinct sketches, broken into seven chapters.
- Part I – The Miracle of Birth
- A woman in labour is taken into a hospital delivery room, where she is largely ignored by doctors (Cleese and Chapman) and nurses, who are more concerned with using the hospital's most expensive equipment to impress the hospital's administrator (Palin). The idea came from Chapman, himself a physician, who had noticed that hospitals were changing, with "lots and lots of machinery".
- In Yorkshire, a Roman Catholic man (Palin) loses his employment. He goes home to his wife (Jones) and an impossible number of children, where he discusses the church's opposition to the use of contraception, leading into the musical number "Every Sperm Is Sacred". Watching this unfold, a Protestant man (Chapman) proudly lectures his wife (Idle) on their church's tolerance towards contraception and having intercourse for fun, although his frustrated wife points out that they never do. The sketch was filmed with language suitable for the many children acting, and dubbed afterwards—"He has to put a little rubber thing on the end of his sock" was said, but was dubbed with "cock" instead.
- Part II – Growth and Learning
A schoolmaster (Cleese) and chaplain (Palin) conduct a nonsensical Anglican church service in an English public school. The master lectures the boys on excessively detailed school etiquette regarding the school cormorant, and hanging clothes on the correct peg. In a subsequent class, the schoolboys (Idle, Palin, Jones, Chapman and others) watch in boredom as the master gives a sex education lesson, by physically demonstrating techniques with his wife (Patricia Quinn). Later, a team of boys is beaten – physically and on the scoreboard – in a violentrugby match against the masters; the scene then match cuts to Part III.
- Part III – Fighting Each Other
- A World War I officer (Jones) attempts to rally his men (Chapman, Gilliam, Palin, Idle, and Cleese) to find cover during an attack, but is hindered by their insistence on celebrating his birthday, complete with presents and cake.
- A blustery army RSM (Palin) attempts to drill a platoon of men, among them Atkinson (Idle) and Wycliff (Chapman), but ends up left alone when he excuses them one by one to pursue leisure activities.
- In 1879, during the Anglo-Zulu War in Natal, a devastating attack by Zulus is dismissed in lieu of a far more pressing matter: one of the officers, Perkins (Idle), has had his leg bitten off during the night. The military doctor (Chapman) hypothesises that, despite not being native to Africa, a tiger might be the perpetrator. Ainsworth (Cleese), Packenham-Walsh (Palin) and a sergeant (Jones) form a hunting party, which encounters two suspicious men (Idle and Palin) dressed in two halves of a tiger suit, who attempt to assert their innocence through a succession of increasingly feeble excuses to explain why they are dressed as a tiger.
- The Middle of the Film
- A woman (Palin), as if on a talk-show called "The Middle of the Film" introduces a segment called "Find The Fish" – a brief surreal piece in which a drag queen (Chapman), a gangly long-armed man (Jones), and an elephant-headedbutler eerily challenge the audience to find a fish in the scene. Throughout this scene, "audience members" in the film yell out where they think the fish is. The fish from the beginning of the film are quite impressed with this segment.
- Part IV – Middle Age
- A middle-aged American couple (Idle as the wife and Palin as the husband) heads to a dungeon-themed Hawaiian restaurant at a holiday resort. They are presented with a menu of conversation topics by their waiter (Cleese), and choose philosophy and the meaning of life. Their awkward and generally uninformed conversation quickly grinds to a halt, and they send it back, complaining "This conversation isn't very good."
- Part V – Live Organ Transplants
- Two paramedics (Chapman and Cleese) arrive at the doorstep of Mr Brown (Gilliam), a card-carrying organ donor, to claim his liver. He says: "No, no, I'm not dead", but is told: "Oooh, it doesn't say that on the form", and is gruesomely operated on against his will. Cleese's paramedic unsuccessfully attempts to chat up Mrs Brown (Jones), then requests her liver as well. She initially declines, but after a man (Idle) sings a song about man's insignificance in the universe ("The Galaxy Song"), she agrees. Michael Palin said in an interview that this scene harked back to Python's love of bureaucracy, and sketches with lots of people coming round from the council with different bits of paper.
- In a large corporate boardroom, a businessman straightforwardly summarises his two-part report on the meaning of life: that the human soul must be "brought into existence by a process of guided self-observation", which rarely happens because people are easily distracted; and that "people aren't wearing enough hats." This is followed by an attempted takeover of the building by the Crimson Permanent Assurance from the short feature.
- A posh restaurant (complete with a pianist played by Idle, singing "The Penis Song" à la Noël Coward), is visited by Mr. Creosote (Jones), a morbidly obese man in his autumn years. Creosote swears at the unflappable maître d' (Cleese), vomits copiously, and consumes an enormous meal and a huge quantity of beer and wine – to the disgust of other patrons. After finishing, the maître d' offers him a small after-dinner mint; despite initial resistance, Creosote eats it then explodes, showering the restaurant with human entrails and vomit (actually condensed minestrone soup). Writer/director Quentin Tarantino said that this was the only scene he had ever seen whose gruesome content disturbed him. The sketch took a week to film, made possible because of the much larger budget than earlier Python films.
- Part VI-B – The Meaning of Life
Afterwards, two of the restaurant's staff offer their own thoughts on the meaning of life. The maître d' converses with cleaning lady Maria (Jones). The waiter Gaston (Idle) leads the viewer to the countryside where he was born, and explains that his mother encouraged him to notice the beauty of the world and love everyone. Realising that the audience is unamused, he angrily dismisses them and walks off.
- Part VII – Death
- A condemned man (Chapman) is allowed to choose the manner of his execution: being chased off the edge of a cliff by a horde of topless women.
- A depressed autumn leaf "commits suicide" by falling off its tree. Distraught, his wife and children quickly do likewise, followed by the rest of the tree's leaves simultaneously.
- The Grim Reaper (Cleese) visits an isolated country house, and finds himself invited into a dinner party. Not knowing who he is, the dinner guests spend a lot of time arguing with him before finally being told they've all died from eating contaminated salmon mousse (Palin's line, "Hey, I didn't even eat the mousse!" was a rare case of on-set improvisation). Their souls leave their bodies, and they follow the Grim Reaper to Heaven.
- The dinner guests arrive in Heaven, a bright Las Vegas style hotel where every day is Christmas. In a large auditorium filled with characters from throughout the movie, a cheesy lounge singer resembling Tony Bennett (Chapman) performs the song "Christmas in Heaven", while women with bare breasts wearing Santa Claus costumes perform an elaborate dance number.
- The End of the Film
The hostess from "The Middle of the Film" is handed an envelope containing the meaning of life, and casually reads it out: "Try and be nice to people, avoid eating fat, read a good book every now and then, get some walking in, and try and live together in peace and harmony with people of all creeds and nations." She retorts that "gratuitous pictures of penises" and other meaningless controversies would do a better job at bringing the audiences into the cinema, and bitterly announces the closing credits.
- Graham Chapman as chairman (also in Crimson) / Fish No. 1 / Obstetrician / Harry Blackitt / Wymer / Hordern / General / Coles / Narrator No. 2 / Dr. Livingstone / Transvestite / Eric / Guest No. 1 / Arthur Jarrett / Tony Bennettlounge singer
- John Cleese as Fish No. 2 / Dr. Spencer / Humphrey Williams / Sturridge / Ainsworth / Waiter / Eric's Assistant / Maître D' / Grim Reaper
- Terry Gilliam as Window Washer (in Crimson) / Fish No. 4 / Walters / Middle of the Film Announcer / M'Lady Joeline / Mr. Brown / Howard Katzenberg
- Eric Idle as Gunther (also in Crimson) / Fish No. 3 / 'Meaning of Life' Singer / Mr. Moore / Mrs. Blackitt / Watson / Blackitt / Atkinson / Perkins / Soldier Victim No. 3 / Man in Front End of Tiger Suit / Mrs. Hendy / Man in pink / Noël Coward / Gaston / Angela
- Terry Jones as Bert (also in Crimson) / Fish No. 6 / Mum / Priest / (Capt.) Biggs / Sergeant / Man with bendy arms / Mrs. Brown / Mr. Creosote / Maria / Leaf father (voice) / Fiona Portland-Smythe
- Michael Palin as Window Washer (in Crimson) / Harry (also in Crimson) / Fish No. 5 / Mr. Pycroft / Dad / Narrator No. 1 / Chaplain / Carter / Spadger / Regimental Seargeant Major / Pakenham-Walsh / Man in Rear End of tiger suit / Female TV Presenter / Mr. Marvin Hendy / Governor / Leaf Son (voice) / Debbie Katzenberg
- Carol Cleveland as Beefeater Waitress / Wife of Guest No. 1 / Leaf mother (voice) / Leaf daughter (voice) / Heaven receptionist
- Patricia Quinn as Helen Williams
- Mark Holmes as A Severed Head
- Simon Jones as Chadwick / Jeremy Portland-Smyth
- Matt Frewer as one of the yuppies in The Crimson Permanent Assurance segment
- Jane Leeves as "Christmas in Heaven" dancer
According to Michael Palin, "the writing process was quite cumbersome. An awful lot of material didn't get used. Holy Grail had a structure, a loose one: the search for the grail. Same with Life of Brian. With this, it wasn't so clear. In the end, we just said: 'Well, what the heck. We have got lots of good material, let's give it the loosest structure, which will be the meaning of life.'"
After the title of the film was chosen, Douglas Adams called Terry Jones to tell him he had just finished a new book, to be called The Meaning of Liff; Jones was initially concerned about the similarity in titles, which led to the scene in the title sequence of a tombstone which, when hit by a flash of lightning, changes from "The Meaning of Liff" to "The Meaning of Life".
Meaning of Life was made with a budget of less than $10 million, which was still bigger than that of the earlier films. This allowed for large-scale choreography and crowd sequences, a more lavishly produced soundtrack that included new original songs, much more time could be spent on each sketch, especially The Crimson Permanent Assurance. Michael Palin later said that the larger budget, and not making the film for the BBC (i.e., television), allowed the film to be more daring and dark.
The film opened in North America on 31 March 1983. At 257 theatres, it grossed US$1,987,853 ($7,734 per screen) in its opening weekend. It played at 554 theatres at its widest point, and its total North American gross was $14,929,552. As of September 2013 it had a score of 89% on Rotten Tomatoes.
In 2003 a special edition DVD was released, with director's audio commentary, deleted scenes, and behind-the-scenes documentaries (both real and spoofed). The DVD also featured a soundtrack for the lonely, which is an audio commentary of a completely disgusting man (Michael Palin) who is sitting watching the film in his flat, throughout the commentary he usually picks up the phone and talks to friends (Terry Jones and Eric Idle), passes wind and talks under his voice.
The original tagline read "It took God six days to create the Heavens and the Earth, and Monty Python just 90 minutes to screw it up" (the length of The Meaning of Life proper is 90 minutes, but becomes 107 minutes as released with the "Short Subject Presentation", The Crimson Permanent Assurance). In the 2003 DVD release of the film, the tagline is altered to read "It took God six days to create the Heavens and the Earth, and Monty Python just 1 hour and 48 minutes to screw it up".
Ireland banned the film on its original release as it had previously done with Monty Python's Life of Brian, but later rated it 15 when it was released on video. In the United Kingdom the film was rated 18 when released in the cinema and on its first release on video, but was re-rated 15 in 2000. In the United States the film is rated R.