Pierre Bourdieu ( Denguin , August 1 1930 - Paris , January 23 2002 ) was a French sociologist . In his own country, he was a leading leftist intellectual, he was especially beyond social scientists known. Thanks to his magnum opusLa distinction in 1979 , he is considered one of the great sociologists of the twentieth century.
- 2 Work
- 3 Criticism
- 4 Selecte bibliography
Bourdieu was born the son of a postman in a farming community on the edge of the Pyrenees . He studied philosophy at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and then went to teach at the University of Algiers . In Algeria , where he also served as a soldier, he wrote in the fifties, his first sociological studies, knowing where he was to 'convert'. He worked among other things, with the uprooting of Algerians by French colonialism and the Islam .
In 1968 he founded the research institute Centre de Sociologie Européene and in 1975 he founded the journal Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales on. In 1982 he followed Raymond Aron as a professor at the prestigious Collège de France . He is always primarily concerned with social inequality, which is probably partly due to his lowly origin. Except sociologist, he also became increasingly political activist. He was against modern social democrats as Jospinand Blair , who in the 80s and 90s still neoliberal were. As a result, he grew up in France to become just as famous as intellectually example Sartre , Foucault and Derrida .
But when he unexpectedly on January 23, 2002 cancer death - he was 71 - opened the newspaper Le Monde , and many television news with this message. He was buried in the famous Parisian cemetery Pere Lachaise .
Bourdieu was one of the few major sociologists theory and empiricism linked. He conducted large-scale studies using both surveys and in-depth interviews and research resources, and managed to use new, profound theories. Gathered data
In addition, he always reflexivity propagated in sociology. Sociologists should always be aware of their own position in the research field, in science and in society. Well aware They should study as they do others. Themselves and the social sciences in the same way
For many Bourdieu was not an easy writer. His constant urge to describe everything from clauses and asides as precisely as possible and to qualify again yielded many inaccessible prose, even in translation.
According to Bourdieu, the actions of individuals are not fully determined by something as abstract as 'society', nor is society full of the sum of the actions of individuals, but is rather an interaction. To bridge this gap between Levi-Strauss and Sartre bridge he developed the concept of field (champ). Society consists of several overlapping fields such as politics , the science and the arts . Within these fields is an ongoing (partly unconscious) power struggle going on between the players for the scarce resources within that field at stake. Within each specific field (weather: partly unconscious) apply rules which participants must adhere.
To a field to gain power and influence people need capital. This involves not only economic capital , such as cash and property, but also to cultural capital (knowledge, skills, education) and social capital (relationships, networks). This division is inspired by the theory of Weber . Later Bourdieu has added to this other forms of capital, such as symbolic and linguistic capital (knowledge of the language of the dominant culture).
In every field, people unconsciously develop a specific habitus , a sustainable way of perceiving, thinking and acting, which people can survive in the field and can make progress. People standing in a field are long, for example, since birth, so have an advantage over new entrants because the habit is fully internalized by them. The habitus is shaped by the interplay of individuals, and then take their act further affects structural forms: here the key between the individual and society, between micro and macro.
Bourdieu's ideas about habitus and field are similar to the configuration sociology of Elias , mainly in Amsterdam has found. input sociology Bourdieu has not applied as a whole and the class structure only on society, but also in many specific areas, such as the academic ( Gay academician , 1984) and the cultural field ( Les règles de l'Art , 1992).
From the above, Bourdieu deduced that the class structure constantly reproduces itself. Although we live in a meritocratic society in which intelligence and training so your place in society should determine, in reality, it remains difficult for a dime to a quarter to. Because workers' children in higher education little understanding of the subtle use which take root in the higher circles and betrayed by their gestures, their language so that they are not in from infancy in those circles, and thus do not belong there, they will never completely penetrate the upper layer of society.
They have not inherited the habit from home. Bourdieu, who comes from the lower middle class in the province, seems at first glance the exception that proves the rule, but he has never 'hear' the Parisian academia. Feeling
Bourdieu owes his 1979 book dating his greatest fame La distinction. Social critique du jugement , which was translated into English in 1984 Distinction. A social critique on the judgment of taste . It worked the way the social classes relate to each other by further study. Their lifestyle and cultural flavor A person's cultural taste is not simply a personal preference, but in many cases an expression of the group to which he or she belongs.
Pursuant to include a survey in the sixties among more than 1,200 people, he concluded that people are using their cultural taste apart. It's not just about things like this music , literature and visual arts , but also to eetvoorkeuren, clothing, interior and so on. Because of their education and to a lesser extent their training people from the upper classes have developed a habit in which high culture is central. They are capable and also tend to judge artworks more formal aspects, originality and the relation to other arts (which he calls an "aesthetic disposition") rather than the content, evoking emotions and immediate utility.
It distinguishes them from people from lower classes, against whom they are - consciously or not - off. People from the middle and working class proceeding up to have their eventual high education is often not enough to be used by the upper classes. Fully accepted They do not have enough cultural capital, high culture is not in their habitus. And if certain groups of a cultural preference for higher classes take, consider that the upper classes no longer as exclusive and it is for them so it's time to get back to embrace something new.
The class structure is represented by Bourdieu in a 'social space', in which not only the amount of capital that people possess a role (the traditional hierarchy), but also the composition of capital. People with especially economic capital (eg in business) often have a traditional cultural preference, people with a lot of cultural capital (academics, artists) a more progressive ( avant-garde ). Nor is the process that people have come a major role (eg, they are social climbers?), Which gives it a dynamic character.
Except for its intricate use of language and his left-wing activism is Bourdieu also been criticized for other reasons. So its very French oriented sociology. In societies other than the French, for example, American or Dutch, the dividing lines between the classes would be much less sharply defined. It would appear that all kinds of taste preferences from high and low culture mix, the so-called "cultural omnivores" many more people. Even in the 60s, when Bourdieu did his research.
Moreover, many, especially in the cultural elite, feel insulted by the idea that they would want to stand, they would be. Snobs aware of people with different taste Bourdieu referred to it, however much more implicit. Status Motives usually only play a role in unconscious cultural flavor.
Finally Bourdieu would empirical data sometimes too easily interpret some concepts such as pitch, not always worked out as well.
- 1958 - Sociologie de l'Algérie
- 1970 - La reproduction. Éléments pour une théorie du système d'enseignement
- 1979 - La distinction. Social critique du jugement (1984 Distinction. A social critique of the judgment of taste )
- 1980 - Le sens pratique
- 1984 - Gay Academician (2002 Gay academician , vert Patrick Claeys, Freddy Mortier & Jacques Tacq.)
- 1989 - Drawing on taste, habitus and the field concept , ed Dick Pels
- 1992 - Les règles de l'art (1994, The state of the art Incarnation and structure of the literary field. , vert. Rokus Hofstede )
- 1992 - Reponses: pour une reflexive anthropology (1992 Arguments for a reflexive social science. , vert. Rokus Hofstede )
- 1993 - La misery du monde
- 1996 - Sur la télévision (1998 On television , followed by In the grip of journalism , vert. Rokus Hofstede )
- 1997 - Meditations pascaliennes
- 2002 - Ein soziologischer Selbstversuch (posthumous, vert. Esquisse d'une auto-analysis , 2004)